(a) Definitions.—In this section:
(1) Capital improvement.—The term "capital improvement" means a structure, a fixture, or nonremovable equipment provided by a concessioner pursuant to the terms of a concession contract and located on land of the United States within a System unit.
(2) Consumer price index.—The term "Consumer Price Index" means—
(A) the "Consumer Price Index—All Urban Consumers" published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor; or
(B) if the Index is not published, another regularly published cost-of-living index approximating the Consumer Price Index.
(b) Leasehold Surrender Interest in Capital Improvements.—A concessioner that constructs a capital improvement on land owned by the United States within a System unit pursuant to a concession contract shall have a leasehold surrender interest in the capital improvement subject to the following terms and conditions:
(1) In general.—A concessioner shall have a leasehold surrender interest in each capital improvement constructed by a concessioner under a concession contract, consisting solely of a right to compensation for the capital improvement to the extent of the value of the concessioner's leasehold surrender interest in the capital improvement.
(2) Pledge as security.—A leasehold surrender interest may be pledged as security for financing of a capital improvement or the acquisition of a concession contract when approved by the Secretary pursuant to this subchapter.
(3) Transfer and relinquishment or waiver of interest.—A leasehold surrender interest shall be transferred by the concessioner in connection with any transfer of the concession contract and may be relinquished or waived by the concessioner.
(4) Limit on extinguishing or taking interest.—A leasehold surrender interest shall not be extinguished by the expiration or other termination of a concession contract and may not be taken for public use except on payment of just compensation.
(5) Value of interest.—The value of a leasehold surrender interest in a capital improvement shall be an amount equal to the initial value (construction cost of the capital improvement), increased (or decreased) by the same percentage increase (or decrease) as the percentage increase (or decrease) in the Consumer Price Index, from the date of making the investment in the capital improvement by the concessioner to the date of payment of the value of the leasehold surrender interest, less depreciation of the capital improvement as evidenced by the condition and prospective serviceability in comparison with a new unit of like kind.
(6) Value of interest in certain new concession contracts.—
(A) How value is determined.—The Secretary may provide, in any new concession contract that the Secretary estimates will have a leasehold surrender interest of more than $10,000,000, that the value of any leasehold surrender interest in a capital improvement shall be based on—
(i) a reduction on an annual basis, in equal portions, over the same number of years as the time period associated with the straight line depreciation of the initial value (construction cost of the capital improvement), as provided by applicable Federal income tax laws and regulations in effect on November 12, 1998; or
(ii) an alternative formula that is consistent with the objectives of this subchapter.
(B) When alternative formula may be used.—The Secretary may use an alternative formula under subparagraph (A)(ii) only if the Secretary determines, after scrutiny of the financial and other circumstances involved in the particular concession contract (including providing notice in the Federal Register and opportunity for comment), that the alternative formula is, compared to the standard method of determining value provided for in paragraph (5), necessary to provide a fair return to the Federal Government and to foster competition for the new contract by providing a reasonable opportunity to make a profit under the new contract. If no responsive offers are received in response to a solicitation that includes the alternative formula, the concession opportunity shall be resolicited with the leasehold surrender interest value as described in paragraph (5).
(7) Increase in value of interest.—Where a concessioner, pursuant to the terms of a concession contract, makes a capital improvement to an existing capital improvement in which the concessioner has a leasehold surrender interest, the cost of the additional capital improvement shall be added to the then-current value of the concessioner's leasehold surrender interest.
(c) Special Rule for Possessory Interest Existing Before November 13, 1998.—
(1) In general.—A concessioner that has obtained a possessory interest (as defined pursuant to the Act of October 9, 1965 (known as the National Park Service Concessions Policy Act; Public Law 89–249, 79 Stat. 969), as in effect on November 12, 1998) under the terms of a concession contract entered into before November 13, 1998, shall, on the expiration or termination of the concession contract, be entitled to receive compensation for the possessory interest improvements in the amount and manner as described by the concession contract. Where that possessory interest is not described in the existing concession contract, compensation of possessory interest shall be determined in accordance with the laws in effect on November 12, 1998.
(2) Existing concessioner awarded a new contract.—A concessioner awarded a new concession contract to replace an existing concession contract after November 13, 1998, instead of directly receiving the possessory interest compensation, shall have a leasehold surrender interest in its existing possessory interest improvements under the terms of the new concession contract and shall carry over as the initial value of the leasehold surrender interest (instead of construction cost) an amount equal to the value of the existing possessory interest as of the termination date of the previous concession contract. In the event of a dispute between the concessioner and the Secretary as to the value of the possessory interest, the matter shall be resolved through binding arbitration.
(3) New concessioner awarded a contract.—A new concessioner awarded a concession contract and required to pay a prior concessioner for possessory interest in prior improvements shall have a leasehold surrender interest in the prior improvements. The initial value in the leasehold surrender interest (instead of construction cost) shall be an amount equal to the value of the existing possessory interest as of the termination date of the previous concession contract.
(4) De novo review of value determination.—If the Secretary, or either party to a value determination proceeding conducted under a Service concession contract issued before November 13, 1998, considers that the value determination decision issued pursuant to the proceeding misinterprets or misapplies relevant contractual requirements or their underlying legal authority, the Secretary or either party may seek, within 180 days after the date of the decision, de novo review of the value determination decision by the United States Court of Federal Claims. The Court of Federal Claims may make an order affirming, vacating, modifying or correcting the determination decision.
(d) Transition to Successor Concessioner.—On expiration or termination of a concession contract entered into after November 13, 1998, a concessioner shall be entitled under the terms of the concession contract to receive from the United States or a successor concessioner the value of any leasehold surrender interest in a capital improvement as of the date of the expiration or termination. A successor concessioner shall have a leasehold surrender interest in the capital improvement under the terms of a new concession contract and the initial value of the leasehold surrender interest in the capital improvement (instead of construction cost) shall be the amount of money the new concessioner is required to pay the prior concessioner for its leasehold surrender interest under the terms of the prior concession contract.
(e) Title to Improvements.—Title to any capital improvement constructed by a concessioner on land owned by the United States in a System unit shall be vested in the United States.