Section I-1135 - Sourcing of Sales other than Sales of Tangible Personal Property (Louisiana Code of Regulations)

§ I-1135. Sourcing of Sales other than Sales of Tangible Personal Property

A. General. R.S. 47:287.95(L)provides for the inclusion in the numerator of the sales factor of sales other than sales of tangible personal property.

B. Market-Based Sourcing. Sales other than sales of tangible personal property are sourced to Louisiana if and to the extent that the taxpayers market for the sales is in Louisiana. In general, the provisions in this section establish rules for:

1. determining whether and to what extent the market for a sale other than the sale of tangible personal property is in Louisiana,

2. reasonably approximating the state or states of assignment where the state or states cannot be determined,

3. excluding certain sales of intangible property from the numerator and denominator of the receipts factor pursuant to R.S. 47:287.95(L)(1)(e), and

4. excluding sales from the numerator and denominator of the sales factor, pursuant to R.S. 47:287.95(M), where the state or states of assignment cannot be determined or reasonably approximated, or where the taxpayer is not taxable in the state to which the sales are assigned.

C. Taxable in another State. A taxpayer is taxable within another state if it meets either one of two tests:

1. by reason of business activity in another state, the taxpayer is subject to one of the following types of taxes: A net income tax, a franchise tax measured by net income, a franchise tax for the privilege of doing business, or a corporate stock tax; or

2. by reason of such business activity, another state has jurisdiction to subject the taxpayer to a net income tax, regardless of whether or not the state imposes such a tax on the taxpayer.

D. State. For purposes of this regulation, state means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

E. General Principles of Application; Contemporaneous Records. In order to satisfy the requirements of this regulation, a taxpayers assignment of sales other than sales of tangible personal property must be consistent with the following principles:

1. A taxpayer shall apply the rules set forth in this regulation based on objective criteria and shall consider all sources of information reasonably available to the taxpayer at the time of its tax filing, including, without limitation, the taxpayers books and records kept in the normal course of business. A taxpayer shall determine its method of assigning sales in good faith, and apply it consistently with respect to similar transactions and year to year. A taxpayer shall retain contemporaneous records that explain the determination and application of its method of assigning its sales, including its underlying assumptions, and shall provide those records to the Secretary of the Louisiana Department of Revenue upon request.

2. This regulation provides various assignment rules that apply sequentially in a hierarchy. For each sale to which a hierarchical rule applies, a taxpayer must make a reasonable effort to apply the primary rule applicable to the sale before seeking to apply the next rule in the hierarchy (and must continue to do so with each succeeding rule in the hierarchy, where applicable). For example, in some cases, the applicable rule first requires a taxpayer to determine the state or states of assignment, and if the taxpayer cannot do so, the rule requires the taxpayer to reasonably approximate the state or states. In these cases, the taxpayer must attempt to determine the state or states of assignment (i.e., apply the primary rule in the hierarchy) in good faith and with reasonable effort before it may reasonably approximate the state or states.

3. A taxpayers method of assigning its sales, including the use of a method of approximation, where applicable, must reflect an attempt to obtain the most accurate assignment of sales consistent with these regulatory standards rather than an attempt to lower the taxpayers tax liability. A method of assignment that is reasonable for one taxpayer may not necessarily be reasonable for another taxpayer, depending upon the applicable facts.

F. Rules of Reasonable Approximation

1. In General. In general, this regulation establishes uniform rules for determining whether and to what extent the market for a sale other than the sale of tangible personal property is in Louisiana. This regulation also sets forth rules of reasonable approximation, which apply if the state or states of assignment cannot be determined. In some instances, the reasonable approximation must be made in accordance with specific rules of approximation as prescribed in this regulation. In other cases, the applicable rule in this regulation permits a taxpayer to reasonably approximate the state or states of assignment, using a method that reflects an effort to approximate the results that would be obtained under the applicable rules or standards set forth in this regulation.

2. Approximation Based Upon Known Sales. In an instance where, applying the applicable rules set forth for sale of a service, a taxpayer can ascertain the state or states of assignment of a substantial portion of its sales from sales of substantially similar services ("assigned sales"), but not all of those sales, and the taxpayer reasonably believes, based on all available information, that the geographic distribution of some or all of the remainder of those sales generally tracks that of the assigned sales, it shall include those sales which it believes tracks the geographic distribution of the assigned sales in its sales factor in the same proportion as its assigned sales.

3. Related-Party Transactions; Information Imputed from Customer to Taxpayer. Where a taxpayer has sales subject to this regulation from transactions with a related-party customer, information that the customer has that is relevant to the sourcing of receipts from these transactions is imputed to the taxpayer.

G. Rules with Respect to Exclusion of Receipts from the Receipts Factor

1. The sales factor only includes those amounts defined as sales under applicable statutes and regulations.

2. Certain sales arising from the sale of intangibles are excluded from the numerator and denominator of the sales factor pursuant to R.S. 47:287.95 (L)(1)(e).

3. In a case in which a taxpayer cannot ascertain the state or states to which sales are to be assigned pursuant to the applicable rules set forth in this regulation, (including through the use of a method of reasonable approximation, where relevant) using a reasonable amount of effort undertaken in good faith, the receipts must be excluded from the numerator and denominator of the taxpayers sales factor pursuant to R.S. 47:287.95 (M).

4. In a case in which a taxpayer can ascertain the state or states to which sales are to be assigned pursuant to this regulation, but the taxpayer is not taxable in one or more of those states, the sales that would otherwise be assigned to those states where the taxpayer is not taxable must be excluded from the numerator and denominator of the taxpayers sales factor pursuant to R.S. 47:287.95(M).

H. Sale of a Service

1. General Rule

a. The sale of a service is sourced to Louisiana if and to the extent that the service is delivered to a location in Louisiana. In general, the term "delivered to a location" refers to the location of the taxpayers market for the service, which may not be the location of the taxpayers employees or property. The rules to determine the location of the delivery of a service in the context of several specific types of service transactions are set forth below.

2. Direct Personal Services Received by a Natural Person

a. In General

i.

(a). Except as otherwise provided in this regulation, direct personal services are services that are physically provided in person by the taxpayer, where the customer or the customers tangible property upon which the services are performed is in the same location as the service provider at the time the services are performed. This rule includes situations where the services are provided on behalf of the taxpayer by a third-party contractor. Examples of direct personal services include, without limitation: cleaning services; pest control; medical and dental services, including medical testing, x-rays and mental health care and treatment; child care; hair cutting and salon services; live entertainment and athletic performances; and in-person training or lessons. Direct personal services include services within the description above that are performed at:

[i] a location that is owned or operated by the service provider or

[ii] a location of the customer, including the location of the customers tangible property.

(b) Various professional services, including legal, accounting, financial and consulting services, and other similar services, although they may involve some amount of direct person contact, are not treated as direct personal services within the meaning of this regulation.

b. Assignment of Sales

i. Rule of Determination. Except as otherwise provided in this regulation, if the service provided by the taxpayer is a direct personal service, the service is delivered to the location where the service is received. Therefore, the sale is in Louisiana if and to the extent the customer receives the direct personal service in Louisiana. In assigning its sales from direct personal services, a taxpayer must first attempt to determine the location where a service is received, as follows:

(a). If the service is performed with respect to the body of an individual customer in Louisiana (e.g. hair cutting or x-ray services) or in the physical presence of the customer in Louisiana (e.g. live entertainment or athletic performances), the service is received in Louisiana.

(b). If the service is performed with respect to the customers immovable property in Louisiana or if the service is performed with respect to the customers tangible personal property at the customers residence in Louisiana or in the customers possession in Louisiana, the service is received in Louisiana.

(c). If the service is performed with respect to the customers tangible personal property and the tangible personal property is to be received by the customer at the taxpayer's location in Louisiana, the service is received in Louisiana.

(d). If the service is performed with respect to the customers tangible personal property and the tangible personal property is to be shipped or delivered to the customer, whether the service is performed within or outside Louisiana, the service is received in Louisiana if the property is shipped or delivered to the customer in Louisiana.

c. Rule of Reasonable Approximation. In an instance in which the state or states where a service is actually received cannot be determined, but the taxpayer has sufficient information regarding the place of sale from which it can reasonably approximate the state or states where the service is received, the taxpayer shall reasonably approximate such state or states. If the state to which the sales are to be assigned can be determined or reasonably approximated, but the taxpayer is not taxable in that state, the receipts that would otherwise be assigned to the state are excluded from the numerator and denominator of the taxpayers sales factor pursuant to R.S. 47:287.95(M).

3. Non Direct Personal Services Received by a Natural Person. Non direct personal services delivered to a natural person shall be sourced to the customer's billing address.

a. Non direct personal services include, without limitation, management services, bank and financial services, financial custodial services, investment and brokerage services, fiduciary services, tax preparation, payroll and accounting services, lending services, credit card services (including credit card processing services), data processing services, legal services, consulting services, video production services, graphic and other design services, engineering services, and architectural services.

b. Billing address means the location indicated in the books and records of the taxpayer as the primary mailing address relating to a customers account as of the time of the transaction as kept in good faith in the normal course of business and not for tax avoidance purposes.

4. Services Delivered to an Unrelated Business Entity

a. Services with a Substantial Connection to a Specific Geographic Location

i. Services provided to an unrelated business entity that have a substantial connection to a specific geographic location shall be sourced to the state of the specific geographic location. If the services have a substantial connection to specific geographic locations in more than one state, the services shall be reasonably sourced between those states.

ii. Examples

(a). Cleaning Company, Inc. (taxpayer) has a contract to provide cleaning services to Company A, an unrelated business entity. The contract specifies that cleaning services are to be provided to company A's locations in Louisiana and other states. Cleaning Company, Inc. should source a portion of the total service receipts to Louisiana based on the amount of services performed at company A's locations in Louisiana compared to the total amount of services performed at all of company A's locations.

(b). Training Company, Inc. (taxpayer) contracts with company B, an unrelated business entity, to provide on-site training services to company B's employees at company B's business offices located in Louisiana and three other states. The services are related to specific geographic locations; therefore they should be sourced to the state where company B's employees received the training. Training Company, Inc. should source the receipts from its contract with company B by reasonably assigning those receipts between Louisiana and the three other states using a formula based on the number of training hours provided to company B locations in Louisiana to the total number of training hours provided to all company B locations.

(c). Engineering Company, Inc. (taxpayer) contracts with company C, an unrelated business entity, to provide engineering services related to the construction of an office complex in Louisiana. Engineering Company, Inc. performs some of their service in Louisiana at the building site and additional service in state B at their headquarters. The engineering services are related to a specific geographic location; i.e. the building site in Louisiana; therefore all of the services should be sourced to Louisiana.

b. Services without a Substantial Connection to a Specific Geographic Location

i. Services provided to an unrelated business entity that do not have a substantial connection to a specific geographic location shall be sourced to the state of the taxpayer's commercial domicile.

ii. Commercial domicile is the principal place from which the business is directed or managed.

c. Alternative Methods. In the case where the methods contained in Subparagraphs H.4.a and H.4.b of this section fail to clearly reflect the taxpayer's market in Louisiana, the taxpayer may utilize, or the department may require, the use of alternative methods, including but not limited to the following:

i. By assigning the sales to the state where the contract of sale is principally managed by the customer:

(a). state where a contract of sale is principally managed by the customer" means the primary location at which an employee or other representative of a customer serves as the primary contact person for the taxpayer with respect to the day-to-day execution and performance of a contract entered into by the taxpayer with the customer.

ii. by assigning the sales to the customers place of order;

iii. by assigning the sales to the customers billing address; provided, however, in any instance in which the taxpayer derives more than 5 percent of its receipts from sales of all services from a customer, the taxpayer is required to identify the state in which the contract of sale is principally managed by the customer.

5. Services Delivered to a Related Business Entity. In any instance in which the service is sold to a related entity, the state or states to which the service is assigned is the place of receipt by the related entity as reasonably approximated using the following hierarchy:

a. if the service primarily relates to specific operations or activities of a related entity conducted in one or more locations, then to the state or states in which those operations or activities are conducted in proportion to the related entitys payroll at the locations to which the service relates in the state or states; or

b. if the service does not relate primarily to operations or activities of a related entity conducted in particular locations, but instead relates to the operations of the related entity generally, then to the state or states in which the related entity has employees, in proportion to the related entity's payroll in those states.

I. Sale, Rental, Lease, or License of Immovable Property. In the case of the sale, rental, lease, or license of immovable property, the receipts are sourced to Louisiana if and to the extent that the immovable property is located in Louisiana.

J. Rental, Lease, or License of Tangible Personal Property. In the case of the rental, lease, or license of tangible personal property, the receipts are sourced to Louisiana if and to the extent that the tangible personal property is located in Louisiana.

K. Lease or License of Intangible Property. In the case of the lease or license of intangible property, the receipts are sourced to Louisiana if and to the extent that the intangible property is used in Louisiana.

L. Sale of Intangible Property

1. Assignment of Sales. The assignment of sales to a state or states in the instance of a sale or exchange of intangible property depends upon the nature of the intangible property sold.

2. Sale Where Receipts are Contingent on Productivity, Use or Disposition of the Intangible Property

a. In the case of a sale or exchange of intangible property where the receipts from the sale or exchange are contingent on the productivity, use or disposition of the property, the receipts from the sale are assigned as follows:

i. the receipts are in Louisiana if and to the extent the intangible is used in Louisiana. In general, the term use is construed to refer to the location of the market for the use of the intangible property that is being sold and is not to be construed to refer to the location of the property or payroll of the owner.

3. Contract Right or Government License that Authorizes Business Activity in Specific Geographic Area

a. In the case of a sale or exchange of intangible property where the property sold or exchanged is a contract right, government license or similar intangible property that authorizes the holder to conduct a business activity in a specific geographic area, the sale is assigned to a state if and to the extent that the intangible property is used or is authorized to be used within the state. If the intangible property is used or may be used only in this state, the taxpayer shall assign the sale to Louisiana. If the intangible property is used or is authorized to be used in Louisiana and one or more other states, the taxpayer shall assign the sale to Louisiana to the extent that the intangible property is used in or authorized for use in Louisiana through the means of a reasonable approximation.

4. Excluded Sales

a. Sales of intangible property not described by Paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Subsection shall be excluded from the numerator and the denominator of the sales factor. Excluded sales include, but are not limited to, the sale of a partnership interest, the sale of business "goodwill," the sale of an agreement not to compete, and sales of similar intangible property.

(Promulgated by the Department of Revenue, LR 442218 (December 2018).)

AUTHORITY NOTE: Promulgated in accordance with R.S. 47:1511 and R.S. 47:287.95.

Disclaimer: Lawrina has made every attempt to ensure the information on this page is accurate, but we cannot guarantee that Section I-1135 Sourcing of Sales other than Sales of Tangible Personal Property is a replica of the current official text. Please use the external links to official resources for the latest version.

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